top of page
​Recent Publications

Variation in human water turnover associated with environmental and lifestyle factors 

Yamada,Y., et al. 2022 Science 378: 909-915 doi: 10.1126/science.abm866

Free Access: Full Text

Variability in energy expenditure is much greater in males than females.

Halsey, L.G., et al 2022. Journal of Human Evolution 171:103229. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2022.103229. 

Free Access: Full Text


Human total, basal & activity energy expenditures are independent of ambient environmental temperature

Zhang, X.Y., et al  2022 iScience 25:104682. doi: 10.1016/j.isci.2022.104682

Free Access: Full Text

Total energy expenditure is repeatable in adults but not associated with short-term changes in body composition 

Rimbach et al. 2022. Nature Communications 13: e99  doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-27246-z.   

Free Access: Full Text

Physical activity and fat-free mass during growth and in later life

Westerterp et al. 2021. Am J Clin Nutr. S0960-9822(21)01120-9. DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqab260

Free Access: Full Text   PDF

Energy compensation and adiposity in humans

Carreau et al. 2021. Current Biology. S0960-9822(21)01120-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.08.016

Free Access: Full Text   PDF

Daily energy expenditure through the human life course

Pontzer et al. 2021. Science. 373(6556) 808-812. DOI: 10.1126/science.abe5017

Free Access: Abstract   Full Text   PDF

A standard calculation methodology for human doubly labeled water studies

Speakman et al. 2021. Cell Reports Medicine. 2(2):100203. DOI: 10.1016/j.xcrm.2021.100203.

Free Access: Full Text   PDF

The International Atomic Energy Agency International Doubly Labelled Water Database: Aims, Scope and Procedures

Speakman et al. 2019. Ann Nutr Metab. 75(2):114-118. DOI: 10.1159/000503668.

Free Access: Full Text   PDF


The Doubly Labeled Water (DLW) Database is a collection of over 7,000 measurements of daily energy expenditure made using the DLW technique, an extensively validated form of indirect calorimetry that uses stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen to track the body's production of carbon dioxide. The database includes measurements from 29 countries around the globe, from preterm infants to men and women in their 90's. Data have been contributed by DLW laboratories around the world and are cross-checked and recalculated using a validated equation to maximize accuracy and reliability. Standard variables, such as height, weight, and age, as well as water turnover, body composition, and health status, are available for most subjects. The database is hosted by the International Atomic Energy Agency.

The DLW Database is free to use. Researchers interested in using the database are encouraged to contact the management group to discuss their proposed project. 

Financial Support for the DLW database is provided by the Taiyo Nippon Sanso Corporation, the Sercon Corporation, and the U.S. National Science Foundation [BCS-1824466].

bottom of page